Publicaciones científicas

J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 2018 Jan 10.



Archit Navandar, Santiago Veiga, Gonzalo Torres, David Chorro & Enrique Navarro



Faculty of Sports Sciences, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. 




BACKGROUND: Although the kicking skill is influenced by limb dominance and sex, how a previous hamstring injury affects kicking has not been studied in detail. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sex and limb dominance on kicking in limbs with and without a previous hamstring injury.

METHODS: 45 professional players (males: n=19, previously injured players=4, age=21.16 ± 2.00 years; females: n=19, previously injured players=10, age=22.15 ± 4.50 years) performed 5 kicks each with their preferred and non-preferred limb at a target 7m away, which were recorded with a three-dimensional motion capture system. Kinematic and kinetic variables were extracted for the backswing, leg cocking, leg acceleration and follow through phases.

RESULTS: A shorter backswing (20.20 ± 3.49% vs 25.64 ± 4.57%), and differences in knee flexion angle (58 ± 10o vs 72 ± 14o) and hip flexion velocity (8 ± 0rad/s vs 10 ± 2rad/s) were observed in previously injured, non-preferred limb kicks for females. A lower peak hip linear velocity (3.50 ± 0.84m/s vs 4.10 ± 0.45m/s) was observed in previously injured, preferred limb kicks of females. These differences occurred in the backswing and leg-cocking phases where the hamstring muscles were the most active. A variation in the functioning of the hamstring muscles and that of the gluteus maximus and iliopsoas in the case of a previous injury could account for the differences observed in the kicking pattern.

CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, the effects of a previous hamstring injury must be considered while designing rehabilitation programs to re-educate kicking movement.

Key words: Biomechanics - Kinematics - Kinetics - Inverse dynamics - Sex differences

IX Congreso Internacional de la AECCD. BIOM 22.



David Chorro, Carlos Garcia, Archit Navandar, Gonzalo Torres, y Enrique Navarro



Facultad Ciencias del Deporte, Universidad Politécnica Madrid (España)





Hamstring muscle injury is usually associated with muscle imbalance in hamstring/quadriceps (H:Q) ratio. Most studies focus on the evaluation of this imbalance using isokinetic machines. Some techniques such as EMG which still using Maximun Voluntary Isometric Contraction (MVIC) have appeared recently. The aim of this study is to analyze the possible patterns intramuscular and intermuscular co-activation ratios in quadriceps and hamstrings in professional soccer players without using MVIC. 17 professional soccer players (League BBVA), 16 professional soccer players (Second division B) of the Spanish league and 17 students of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences were analyzed with EMG while they were doing four strengthening exercises. The intramuscular quadriceps pattern was significantly different between first division players and students over three exercises, particularly in the Vastus Lateralis (p < .05). In the students group bilateral differences were found (p < .05). All participants presented higher the ratio H: Q on lower non-dominant limb, becoming significant in the second division B players (p < .05). Finally, a pattern of intramuscular activation and intermuscular ratio in quadriceps and hamstring were found without using MVIC in professional soccer player.


Key words: Pattern intramuscular, ratios H:Q, EMG, Coactivation Neuromuscular, soccer.





La lesión de Isquiotibiales se suele asociar con el desequilibrio muscular de Isquiotibiales/Cuádriceps (I:C). La mayoría de los estudios centrados en la valoración de este desequilibrio utilizaban las máquinas isocinéticas. Recientemente han aparecido técnicas como la EMG pero siguen utilizando la Contracción Voluntaria Isométrica Máxima (CVIM). El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar los posibles patrones intramusculares y los ratios intermusculares de coactivación en Cuádriceps e Isquiotibiales en futbolistas profesionales sin utilizar CVIM. 17 futbolistas profesionales (Liga BBVA), 16 futbolistas (Segunda división B) de la liga española y 17 estudiantes de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte fueron analizados con EMG mientras hacían 4 ejercicios de fuerza. El patrón intramuscular en Cuádriceps fue significativamente diferente entre los jugadores de primera división y los estudiantes en tres ejercicios, en concreto en el Vasto Lateral (p < .05). En los estudiantes se encontraron diferencias de bilateralidad (p < .05). En todos los participantes fue mayor el ratio I:C en el miembro inferior ND, llegando a ser significativo en los jugadores de segunda división B (p < .05). En conclusión, existe un patrón de activación intramuscular y un ratio intermuscular en Cuádriceps e Isquiotibiales en futbolistas profesionales hallado sin CVIM. 

Palabras claves: Patrón intramuscular, ratios I:C, EMG, Coactivación Neuromuscular, fútbol.

European Journal of Human Movement, 2015: 34, 52-74





Enrique Navarro, David Chorro, Gonzalo Torres, Carlos García, Archit Navandar y Santiago Veiga



Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport. Technical University of Madrid (Spain).





The aim has been to review the literature about the risk factors of hamstring injury in soccer from a biomechanical point of view. METHODOLOGY. Data bases of bibliography references were Medline, Scopus and SportDiscuss. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. Many prospective studies have shown that the previous injury is the greatest risk factor of sustaining the injury. However the primary causes of the injury are unclear in soccer. A lack of hamstring flexibility has been one of the main injury risk factors with controversies on the results. Imbalance of isokinetic force is a risk factor but electrical coactivation of all muscles participating during knee flexion and extension are unknown in football. While the importance of lumbopelvic-hamstrings muscles synchronization during running seems to be crucial for understanding the risk of injury, no research has been developed in this topic in football. CONCLUSIONS. More research using new data recording procedures as Dynamic Scanners, Surface EMG, Inverse Dynamic Analysis are needed. The analysis of more specific movements as running, kicking or jumping is clearly required. Managers, coaches, physical trainers, physiotherapists, sport physicians and researchers should work together in order to improve the injury prevention and rehabilitation programs of football players.


Key Words: sports biomechanics, soccer, hamstring injury, risk factors




El objetivo de este estudio, ha sido revisar la bibliografía sobre la lesión de isquiotibiales desde un punto de vista biomecánico. METODOLOGÍA. Las bases de datos utilizadas fueron Medline, Scopus y SportsDiscuss. RESULTADOS Y DISCUSIÓN. Muchos estudios prospectivos han demostrado que el principal factor de riesgo es haber tenido la lesión previamente. Sin embargo, las causas primarias de la lesión en fútbol son desconocidas. Una falta de flexibilidad ha sido uno de los principales factores de riesgo pero existen controversias en los resultados de la literatura. Desequilibrio de la fuerza isocinética es un factor de riego pero la participación de cada músculo por separado durante la flexo-extensión de rodilla en fútbol no ha sido considerado en los estudios. Mientras que la sincronización de los músculos lumbopélvicos parece ser clave para entender el riesgo de lesión, no se ha desarrollado investigación al respecto. CONCLUSIONES. Por tanto, son necesarios más estudios prospectivos y nuevos procedimientos como el escaner dinámico, la electromiografía de superficie o el análisis dinámico inverso. El análisis de gestos más específicos del fútbol es necesario. Gestores, entrenadores, preparadores físicos, fisioterapeutas, médicos deportivos e investigadores deberían trabajar juntos para mejorar los sistemas de prevención y de recuperación de la lesión.


Palabras clave: biomecánica deportiva, fútbol, lesión de isquiotibiales, factores de riesgo




Archit Navandar, Carlos Garcia, Santiago Veiga, Gonzalo Torres, David Chorro and Enrique Navarro



Faculty of Sports Sciences, Technical University of Madrid, Madrid (Spain)





The hamstring injury is one of the most common injuries occurring in soccer. The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of a previous hamstring injury and limb dominance on the kicking pattern of elite female soccer players. 14 players belonging to a top first division soccer team volunteered to take part in the study. They were asked about their injury history and leg dominance in a questionnaire, and they performed 5 instep soccer kicks with either limb into a target 7m away. The results showed that limb dominance had no effect on the kicking pattern in elite players. Significant differences were found in the maximum hip angular velocity while kicking with a previously injured limb as compared to a previously uninjured limb. This indicates that rehabilitation programs probably should treat the injury differently in female soccer players.


Key words: inverse dynamics, motion analysis.


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